Friday, March 25, 2016

Translation of a Passage from the Krsna Uddhava Samvada Section of the Eleventh Book of the Bhagavata: The Glory of the Company of the Pure Devotees of the Lord

একাদশ স্কন্ধ
কৃষ্ণ-উদ্ধৱ সংবাদ

মাধৱে বোলন্ত সখি শুনা পৰিচ্ছেদ ৷
পঢ়ে সৱে শাস্ত্ৰ যদি জানৈ চাৰিবেদ ৷৷
কৰিতে নপাৰৈ মোত তথাপি ভকতি ৷
নলৱয় নৰে যাৱে সন্তৰ সঙ্গতি ৷৷ ১৭৩
কাণত কহন্ত কথা কৃষ্ণে গোপ্য কৰি ৷
নাহিকে উপায় সখি সুসঙ্গক সৰি ৷৷
আহ্মাক নপাৱৈ পুনু জ্ঞানী কৰ্ম্মীলোক ৷
সাধুসঙ্গে অৱশ্যেকে বশ্য কৰে মোক ৷৷ ১৭৪
নপাৱৈ মোহোক যাগ যোগ যজ্ঞ দানে ৷
মহামন্ত্ৰ জাপ্য কোটি শত তীৰ্থ স্নানে ৷৷
নপাৱৈ আহ্মাক একাদশী উপৱাসে ৷
নকৰয় বশ্য মোক পৰম সন্ন্যাসে ৷৷ ১৭৫
আন কৰ্ম্ম কৰিয়া মিছাত মৰৈ লোকে ৷
ভকতৰ সঙ্গেশে সম্যকে জানৈ মোকে ৷৷
কহিলোহো মহাগোপ্য কথাক উদ্ধৱ ৷
যিহেতু ভকত তুমি পৰম বান্ধৱ ৷৷ ১৭৬
মোক্ষতো অধিক সখি সাধুৰ সঙ্গম ৷
যাহাৰ ৰেণুক স্বৰ্গসুখো নুহি সম ৷৷
সাধুসঙ্গে অনেকে পাইলেক মোৰ গতি ৷
দেঞঁ লেখা সখি তাক শুনিয়ো সম্প্ৰতি ৷৷ ১৭৭
যক্ষ ৰক্ষ বৃক্ষ পক্ষীপশু পালে পালে ৷
স্ত্ৰী শূদ্ৰ অন্ত্যজাতি অধম চাণ্ডালে ৷৷
ইসৱতো অধিক অনেক পাপমতি ৷
ভকতৰ সঙ্গত পাইলেক মোৰ গতি ৷৷ ১৭৮
বিভীষণ বীৰ বৃষপৰ্ব্বা বলি বাণ ৷
জাম্বৱন্ত জটায়ু সুগ্ৰীৱ হনুমান ৷৷
মালাকাৰ কুজী ধৰ্ম্ম ব্যাধ তুলাধাৰ ৷
দ্বিজভাৰ্য্যা ব্ৰজবাসী গোপী অনাচাৰ ৷৷ ১৭৯
নাহি তপ ব্ৰত শৌচ নপঢ়িলে বেদ ৷
নজানয় জ্ঞান একো শাস্ত্ৰ তত্ত্বভেদ ৷৷
কেৱলে সাধুৰ সঙ্গে সুখে পাইলা গতি ৷
সত্‍সঙ্গত পৰে নাই উপায় সম্প্ৰতি ৷৷ ১৮০
দেৱতো তীৰ্থতো কৰি ভকতেসে বৰ ৷
ভকতক ভজিলে গুচয় কৰ্ম্ম জড় ৷৷
কৰৈ তেৱে ভকতি ঈশ্বৰ মোক মানি ৷
কহিলো তোহ্মাত ইটো সখি সত্যবাণী ৷৷ ১৮১
মঞিঁ এৰে ভকতৰ নাহিকে অন্তৰ ৷
মোৰ সঙ্গ এৰে সৰি সঙ্গতি সন্তৰ ৷৷
এতেকে লৈয়োক সাধুসঙ্গ সৰ্ব্বক্ষণ ৷
শুনিয়োক সখি আৱে সাধুৰ লক্ষণ ৷৷ ১৮২
ভকতেসে সমস্তে পুণ্যৰ হোৱৈ পাত্ৰ ৷
জানি নিজধৰ্ম্ম তেজি মোক ভজৈ মাত্ৰ ৷৷
সুদৃঢ় বিশ্বাসে মোকে কৰিলে নিশ্চয় ৷
সেহি মহাসাধু সখি নাহিকে সংশয় ৷৷ ১৮৩

The Eleventh Book of the Bhagavata
The Dialogue Between Krsna and Uddhava

Madhava said, “Beloved mate, listen to this verdict of mine.
Let one read all the sastras and study all four Vedas.
Yet, one would not have the capacity to do bhakti to me
as long as one does not take the pure-devotees’ company.” 173
Krsna then whispers this secret into the ear of Uddhava,
“O beloved mate! Friend, closest and dearest! There is no other way apart from the company of the pure devotees.
Furthermore, I am not obtained by the doers of prescribed Vedic action or by the intellectualists.
It is only the association with pure-devotees that certainly makes me subservient. 174
I am not obtained through sacrifice, oblations, yoga or through charity.
Nor through incanting great mantras or bathing in billions of tirthas.
Nor can one get me by holding fasts on days like ekadasi, etc.
Nor can supreme renunciation make me subservient. 175
In vain do people die doing these various karmas.
For it is only the company of the bhaktas, the pure devotees, that knows me correctly.
I have told you the most confidential secret, Uddhava!
As you are my devotee and supreme friend! 176
Beloved mate, greater than even salvation is the congregation of pure devotees
even a particle of which the happiness of heaven cannot equal.
By associating with pure devotees, many have already obtained my abode.
I will now read out their list, beloved mate; please listen to it currently. 177
The ghosts (yaksa) and the monsters (raksa), the trees (vrksa) and the birds (paksi) and herds and herds of beasts (pasu),
the women (stri) and the sudras, the lowest among the castes and the untouchables and outcastes (candala).
And many other rascally individuals even worse than these!
By associating with my pure devotees obtained my state. 178
Brave Vibhisana, Vrsaparva, Bali and Bana.
Jambavanta, Jatayu, Sugriva, Hanumana. The garland-maker, the hunchback Kubja, Dharma Vyadha and the bearer of balance. The dvijas’ wives, the residents of Vraja and the Gopis of devious conduct. 179 They did not do even an iota of austerity, holding of vow, ablution and purification; and they never read the Vedas.
They do not know any jnana; have no knowledge at all of the sastras and of the difference between the tattvas.
Solely through the company of pure-devotees, they happily obtained deliverance.
Apart from associating with the pure devotees, there is no other path presently. 180
Greater than even the cosmic-entities (devas) and the pilgrimage-spots (tirthas) are the bhaktas.
When one does worship to the bhaktas, one’s matter-like state resulting from entanglement in desire-actuated material action, is removed.
And only then one does pure devotion to me, knowing me to be the supreme Lord.
O beloved mate! I tell you this word of truth— 181
There is no difference between my pure devotees and me.
The company of the santas is the same as my company.
Therefore, please take the company of the sadhus at all times without a break.
Listen, now, beloved mate, to what is the distinguishing characteristic (laksana) of the saintly one (sadhu). 182
Knowing that only the bhakta is eligible for receiving all religious merit (punya),
the one who, forsaking completely one’s own dharma—the injunctions corresponding to one’s assigned varna etc.—does devotion only to me and who
has resolved unshakably on me solely,
that one, doubtless, is the greatest sadhu only.” 183

Thursday, March 24, 2016

Translation of Sankaradeva's Bhakti Ratnakara: Chapter on the Difference Between the Embodied Personality (Jiva) and the Lord (Isvara)


জীৱ-ঈশ্বৰ ভেদ-মাহাত্ম্য

দুলড়ী

শুনা আৱে জীৱ     ঈশ্বৰৰ ভেদ
     কৰি সাৱধান মন |
টীকাকাৰে যেন ভেদ কহি আছে
     কহঞোঁ সেহি বচন ||
সেহিসে ঈশ্বৰ  যাৰ বশ্য মায়া
     পৰম আনন্দময় |
মায়া মৰ্দ্দে যাক তাকে বুলি জীৱ
     দুঃখতে তাৰ উদয় || ৭৬৩
অতি সুখ-ৰূপ আনন্দে যুগুত
     চৈতন্য-ৰুপ ঈশ্বৰ |
তাহানে মায়ায়ে ঢাকিলেক নিজ
     আনন্দ-সুখ জীৱৰ ||
দুঃখচয়ে বেঢ়ি  আছয় জীৱক
     পাৱে অতি মহাখেদ |
কহিলোঁ প্ৰত্যেক জানিবা এতেক
     জীৱ-ঈশ্বৰৰ ভেদ || ৭৬৪
চতুৰ্থ স্কন্ধত  মাধৱক ধ্ৰুৱে
     বোলন্ত তুতি-বচন |
জীৱত কৰিয়া বিলক্ষণ ৰূপে
     থাকা তুমি নাৰায়ণ ||
তুমি নিত্যমুক্ত চৈতন্য তুমিসি
     নিত্য-বদ্ধ জড় জীৱ |
তোমাৰ সেৱাত হোৱে মুক্ত জীৱ
     তুমি দেৱ সদাশিৱ || ৭৬৫
তুমি মাত্ৰ শুদ্ধ তুমিসি সৰ্ব্বজ্ঞ
     নিৰ্ব্বিকাৰ ভগৱন্ত |
তিনিয়ো গুণৰ তুমি সে ঈশ্বৰ
     তোমাৰ নাহিকে অন্ত ||
অতি অজ্ঞ জীৱ     বিকাৰ পৰম
     অশুদ্ধ অতি হোৱয় |
ভৈল ভাগ্যহীন গুণৰ অধীন
     জীৱে একো নেদেখয় || ৭৬৬
অখণ্ডিত দৃষ্টি  তুমি সৱে দেখা
     পুৰুষ আদি অনাদি |
যজ্ঞৰ তুমিসি  অধিষ্ঠাতা দেৱ
     জীৱৰ আছয় আদি ||
জীৱ-ঈশ্বৰৰ   যেন বিলক্ষণ
     ধ্ৰুৱ বাক্যে ব্যক্ত ভৈলা |
একাদশ স্কন্ধে  শুনিয়োক আৰ
     ভগৱন্তে যেন কৈলা || ৭৬৭
বোলন্ত উদ্ধৱ  যিটো পৰমাত্মা
     তান কৰ্ম্ম নাহিকয় |
জীৱৰ নিয়ন্তা  তাহান শকতি
     মনো সঞ্চালিত হয় ||
অলুপুত জ্ঞানে কেৱলে দেখন্ত
     কেৱলে বিদ্যা-শকতি |
সংসাৰ প্ৰকাশে হেনয় মনক
     কৰিলা জীৱে সঙ্গতি || ৭৬৮
আত্মাৰূপে তাক বিচাৰ কৰিয়া
     নানা কাম ভোগ কৈলা |
এহিসে নিমিত্তে গুণৰ সঙ্গত
     জীৱ পুনু বদ্ধ ভৈলা ||
যোগ-সাৰ শাস্ত্ৰে     জীৱ-ঈশ্বৰৰ
     শুনা যেন ভেদ কয় |
পৰমাত্মা হৰি  বিজ্ঞান-মূৰুতি
     নিৰাকাৰ নিৰাময় || ৭৬৯
নিত্য নিৰঞ্জন  আনন্দ-স্বৰূপ
     দেহ ইন্দ্ৰি নাহিকয় |
তথাপি শুনয়  বসিয়া থাকয়
     কাহাকো কৰন্ত হত |
জগতৰে কৰ্ত্তা  পালয় সৱাকো
     সংহৰে সবে জগত || ৭৭০
নিশ্চল নিৰ্ম্মল  নাহিকয় সঙ্গ
     একো চেষ্টা নাহিকয় |
বস্তু-পৰিগ্ৰহ   নাহিকয় তান
     কিছু কৰ্ম্ম নকৰয় ||
স্ৰজিয়া জগত  সদা থাকা তাতে
     অতি উদাসীনভাৱে |
নুহিকে আকুল  সংসাৰৰ দোষে
     তাহাঙ্ক একো নপাৱে || ৭৭১
তানে একো অংশে    জীৱ-আত্মা সিটো
     দেহ-ধাৰী ভৈলা আসি |
ব্যয় আছে তাৰ অব্যয় হোৱয়
     জীৱ নিত্য অবিনাশী ||
সুখ-দুঃখময়   মায়া-মোহ পাশে
     ভৈলা অতি বিমোহিত |
কৰ্ম্ম-জৰী-বদ্ধ হুয়া সংসাৰত
     পৰি দুঃখ পাৱে নিত || ৭৭২
ঈশ্বৰত কৰি  জীৱ ভিন্ন নুহি
     শান্ত অবিকাৰী হয় |
ভ্ৰান্তিয়ে অজ্ঞান আবৰিত হুয়া
     আপোনাক নজানয় ||
কৃষ্ণ-পাৱে এক শৰণ পশিয়া
     হৰিত কৰি ভকতি |
অতি অজ্ঞানীয়ো     অনায়াসে লভে
     দুৰ্ল্লভ পৰম গতি || ৭৭৩
জীৱ-আত্মা পৰ-    আত্মা ভেদ জানি
     ভকতি কৰে যিজনে |
কিকুহিবা তাক পাইবে অতি সুখে
     মহাগতি সিটোজনে ||
ইটো মাহাত্ম্যক কৰিলোঁ সসাঙ্গ
     শুনা সৱে বুদ্ধজন |
মাধৱক মনে  ধৰি ৰাম ৰাম
     বুলিয়োক সৰ্ব্বজন || ৭৭৪
The Difference Between the Embodied Personality (Jiva) and the Lord (Isvara)

Verses (duladi metre)

Listen now to the difference between the embodied personality (jiva) and the Lord (isvara)
making attentive your mind.
The difference that the commentator is saying, first
those words I will tell.
“That only is the Lord under whose control is primal matter (maya);
He is the personality of supreme transcendental joy.
That which primal nature—its nescience—crushes, that only is embodied personality;
he has his rise in affliction. 763
Of the nature of extreme happiness, endowed with bliss is
the supremely conscious form of the Lord.
It is His nescience (maya) only that has covered and kept under wraps
the happiness born of own-joy of the jiva.
Various miseries and afflictions are surrounding the embodied person;
he is suffering greatly on account of them.
I have told directly; know, in this manner,
the difference between the embodied personality and the Lord.” 764
In the fourth book, to the Lord of Primal Matter,
Dhruva says these words of praise,
“In a form characteristically opposite to the jiva,
you are staying, Shelter of All Beings.
You are forever-liberated; forever in pure conscious form you are only;
the jiva, on the other hand, is forever-chained to matter and becomes extremely matter-like (jada) in appearance.
Through your service only the jiva becomes free;
you are the supreme controlling entity, O the one who is always gracious. 765
You only are spotlessly pure, only you are all-knowing;
you do not come under the influence of the modifications of matter; you, my master, are the Lord of All Opulence!
Of the three qualities of material nature, you only are the controller;
you do not have any ending, being present at all times and across all spaces.
But, the jiva is extremely unenlightened; he suffers greatly from the modifications;
he is reduced to extremely fallen and impure state.
Becoming bereft of good fortune, and under the influence of the gunas,
the jiva does not see anything. 766
[Why this difference, my Lord?] Because only you, who are the supreme pure-personality, have the vision of impartite knowledge; you see everything,
O the original personality whose origin cannot be found!
You only are the controlling-entity of the yajna­-like material processes going on within the microcosm;
the jiva—an embodied personality that it is—however, has a beginning.”
The striking contrast between jiva and Isvara
has been expressed through the words of Dhruva.
Listen now, in the eleventh book,
what was told by the Lord Himself. 767
He says, “Uddhava, that which is the supreme spiritual personality (paramatma),
that has no entanglement with material actions at all.
The controller of the organism (jiva), by His power,
even the material mind is actuated.
By means of His intrinsic uneclipsable knowledge, He only sees;
He is ever-enlightened pure-personality.
In contrast, that which is the connecting link to material life—with such a mind-device
the jiva has associated himself. 768
Thinking that to be his own spiritual self,
he is enjoying various desires.
For this reason only, in the company of the material qualities,
the jiva has become now shackled.”
In the spiritual text known as Yogasara (The Essence of Yoga), listen to what is said
about the difference between jiva and Isvara:
The supreme spiritual personality, The Great Remover, is the embodiment of direct knowledge (vijnana);
He is devoid of any average, material form and He is never suppressed by the working of the three qualities of material nature. 769
He is eternal—existing always—, unstained and supremely joyous by nature.
He is without a material body and material limitations like organs.
But still He hears, still He moves, sits etc.
and sometimes even kills somebody!
The doer of the creation, He preserves all
and dissolves the entire world. 770
Pure, invariable and having no company,
He does not do any effort.
There is no accumulation of any wealth or property for Him;
He does do not do any work!
Creating the world, He remains always there
in the manner of a stoic!
Never perplexed or confounded, the blemishes of the material world
do not ever touch Him. 771
It is in a very small part (amsa) of Him—His cosmic body—
that the one that is known as embodied spiritual personality (jivatma)
comes to be equipped with a material body.
That body is subject to wearing out and decay but the jiva is imperishable;
he, like His Lord, is also always-existing and indestructible.
Caught in the snare of  infatuation with matter—made up of pleasure and pain—
he has fallen into extreme delusion.
Bound by the rope of desire-actuated material action (karma) to the cycle of trans-migratory existence (samsara),
he suffers always from affliction. 772
The jiva is not different in kind from Isvara—
he is calm and immutable.
But, enveloped by ignorance and false opinion,
he does not know his own spiritual nature.

***

Entering into sole-refuge in Krsna’s feet and
doing pure devotion to the Great Remover of Affliction,
even the extremely ignorant one effortlessly obtains
the unobtainable supreme deliverance. 773
Knowing the difference between the embodied spiritual personality and the supreme spiritual personality,
the one that does bhakti,
Oh, what will I say about him! He will obtain in extreme happiness
the great and rare deliverance.
This chapter here I have concluded;
hear, O all enlightened people!
Holding in mind the Lord of Primal Matter, ‘Rama!’ ‘Rama!’
please utter, all you people. 774

Determination of the Supreme Brahman the Especial Contribution of Sankaradeva

The especial contribution of Sankaradeva was the determination of the supreme brahman. Mankind’s search for the ultimate fount of conscio...